International Business and Finance

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Infrastructure development is crucial in every country that wants to escalate forward in their economic status. However, there are those that cannot afford because of the lack of resources. The World Bank, established in 1994, is such a vital spring in international business and finance that has been assisting countries all over the world.

It is not a bank, as the name suggests, but it is a global organization that is made up of two special progressive institutions. This international business and finance source consists of 184 nations together with the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IAD).

Each has a specific responsibility supportive of its mission to alleviate poverty and lifestyle improvements. The International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) concentrates on “middle income and creditworthy poor regions” while the International Development Association (IDA) is on the “poorest regions in the globe”. Both offers low- interest loans and interest- free credit that also provides education, health, communications and other beneficial purposes.

This international business and finance group also has its own affiliates like the International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). IFC grants advisory services, loans, structured finance, equity and management products that build the private sector in developing countries. MIGA promotes global immediate investment into developing nations to assist economic growth, improve lives and reduce poverty. ICSID imparts facilities for the pacification and mediation of feuds between member countries and investors.

Some of the members of World Bank are Afghanistan, Albania, Barbuda, Belize, Chile, China, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Guinea, Germany, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia,. Korea, Kuwait, Jordan, Jamaica, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Libya, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vanuatu, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, it has a total of 184; 165 for International Development Association; 178 for International Finance Corporation; 167 for Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and 143 for International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes.

Since it is an international business and finance cooperative, the shareholders are represented by a Board of Governors. They gather every once a year at the Annual Meetings to make policies as well as discuss about the International Monetary Fund. Since their convention only happens very seldom, they delegate specific responsibilities to about 24 executive directors who work on- site at the headquarters located in Washington D.C. The biggest depositors are United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and United States who are the ones who appoint. At present, the president of World Bank is Jim Yong Kim who holds a five- year and renewable term. He is accountable for the overall management of the organization and chairs meetings that are called for.