Economics And Productivity

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As defined, physical productivity is the quantity of output produced by one unit of production input in a unit of time. In layman’s terms, it could be an equipment which can produce 10 tons of output per hour.

Economic productivity, on the other hand, is the value of output acquired from one unit of input. For example, if a worker produces an output of 2 units in an hour (with a price of $10 each), his productivity is $20.

Both technological and market elements (output quantities and prices, respectively) interact with one another to determine economic productivity.


One gets the average economic productivity by dividing output value and (time or physical) units of input. In addition, if the production process uses only one factor (labor, for example), the procedure gives the productivity name of that factor. (In this case, labor productivity).

If there is more than one input used for each factor, it is possible to compute by the same procedure its productivity. (In this case, it is termed “partial”.)

Total factor productivity tries to construct a productivity measure that will encompass an aggregation of factors. How it means is still under hypotheses, and therefore, not yet assured in a general framework.


To date, it had been determined by current technology that the maximum physical quantity of output can be reached together with the number and quality of inputs needed.

In turn, adopted technology is an economic choice. Today’s wide array of concurrent technologies is influenced by available innovations and compatibility with the adopter.
Most cannot be reversed because of the high cost of switching.


Technological changes sometimes happen fast in some industries while in many others the changes are more gradual. Technology, however, always improves.

Economic productivity will depend on pricing and demand. If the consumers require less products that can be produced potentially, plants will not work at full productive capacity. Economic productivity can fall together with decreasing demands and prices.

At the macro-economic level, labor productivity (GDP per worker) depends on the corresponding dynamics of two factors: GDP and employment. In short, productivity rises if the GDP (gross domestic product) increases faster than employment.

Productivity increase

Many factors help buoy up productivity increase. They include capital accumulation via investments, dissemination of new technologies, domestic innovative efforts, enhanced division of work, higher levels of education, organizational and technological production modes from world-class models, and the development of physical and social infrastructures,

Impacts of productivity increase

Higher productivity will first make its presence on profits and ultimately on people’s wages. If production costs do not exceed productivity increase, there is a possibility of a price fall or stability. It is also conducive to lower inflation.

In other countries, productivity has grown. In rich countries, GDP soared mainly because of the increase in productivity. The poorest countries in the world are typically with a low productivity increase.

So far, there is a marked inter-relationship between increase productivity and the rise of GDP at all levels: country-wide, companies, organizational groups, even down to the individual himself.